A Pithy Guide to Web Accessibility Standards: WCAG 2.1, WCAG 2.2, and Its Incorporation Into Federal Regulations

Introduction

Back to navigational menu Introduction

What is Web accessibility? Accessibility is about usability. Specifically, accessibility is about usability for users with certain kinds of disabilities. If these users find a webpage to be unusable, they are dependent on other people to gather information from that webpage. Accessibility is about independence. Making webpages accessible means enabling user independence.

Accessibility is also the law, at least in the United States as it pertains to state and local governments. New federal regulations that went into effect on June 24, 2024 require "a public entity" to "ensure that web content and mobile apps that the public entity provides or makes available, directly or through contractual, licensing, or other arrangements, comply with WCAG 2.1 Level AA success criteria and conformance requirements" within two years or three years depending on population size. This mandate includes public colleges and public universities. It covers their web sites and their instructional materials.

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) is an international technical standard is developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that defines how to make webpages accessible. WCAG does not cover every disability, but has good coverage for auditory, motor, or visual disabilities. It is organized by Principles, Guidelines, and Success Criteria.  The Principles are general objectives and each of the four Principles can be summarized in a single word: perceivable, operable, understandable, and robust.  Each of the 13 Guidelines is a one sentence statement of what needs to be achieved. The Success Criteria provide highly technical and testable criteria by which to measure conformance.

The most recent version of the Guidelines is version 2.2, but version 2.1 is still valid. 50 of the 55 (31 at Level "A" and 24 at Level "AA") Success Criteria in 2.2 are identical to the Success Criteria in 2.1. To conform at the AA level, one must conform to all A and AA Criteria. Version 2.2 adds six new Criteria and deletes one Criterion. As technical standards, WCAG 2.1 and WCAG 2.2 are oriented towards information technology professionals.

The W3C Tips and Tutorials are also oriented towards IT professionals, as are the Accessibility Conformance Testing (ACT) Rules. The Rules that directly map to a Criterion are marked as such. The "Other" Rules listed under each entry are related to that Success Criterion but typically more strict than the Criterion. In other words, you can fail to conform to the Rule but still conform to the related Criterion.

W3C provides other, less technical, resources oriented towards policymakers and other end-users. These are not listed with the Pithy Guide entries because the less technical resources do not map well with the Criteria.

Some aspects of websites are managed by IT professionals. Some webpage content depends upon end-users with varying levels of technological knowledge. Successfully implementing web accessibility depends upon both groups successfully implementing the Success Criteria. A Pithy Guide to Web Accessibility Standards exists to bridge that gap, to serve both groups. There is an entry for each Success Criterion. Each entry includes both non-technical and technical explanations.

Certain entries for Success Criteria new to WCAG version 2.2 are incomplete but work continues to complete them. Some entries are still being converted from older layouts to newer layouts but work continues to complete them.

An older set of web accessibility regulations applicable to federal agencies is Section 508. Section 508 incorporates WCAG 2 by reference though the 508 Functional Performance Criteria do not merely duplicate WCAG 2.

Using A Pithy Guide to Web Accessibility Standards

Back to navigational menu Using the Pithy Guide

Because A Pithy Guide to Web Accessibility Standards is only a summary it cannot be used to claim comformance with WCAG 2.2. Guidelines and the Success Criteria numbers, titles and levels are "Copyright © 2023 W3C® (MIT, ERCIM, Keio, Beihang). This web site includes material copied from or derived from WCAG 2.2." Consult the W3C document license for more detailed licensing information about WCAG.

A Pithy Guide to Web Accessibility Standards has two features that distinguish it from other efforts to simplify WCAG 2.2 (e.g., the WebAIM WCAG 2 Checklist). First, it makes no effort to be comprehensive in its listing of exceptions to the Criteria. As such, it is not a replacement for but a complement to the other resources. Instead, it includes only the Criteria exceptions most likely to be encountered by Pithy Guide readers. Second, the demos include fully marked up and scripted examples of non-conformance rather than examples of HTML markup or JavaScript scripting. As a consequence, some of the demos are not fully accessible. In a few cases where the Criteria are very short, the text is quoted rather than summarized. Most but not all summaries have examples of non-conformance (the summary of the Criterion on flashing content is one of the exceptions).

Some Criteria have additional useful links. Nearly everything in web accessibilty has jargon, but the additional links are relatively light. Some information is repeated. This is intentional, so that each entry stands on its own. Readers do not have to read 1.1.1 to see the relevant information for 1.2.1.

W3C links are provided for all Criteria. The Accessibility Conformance Testing rules are the underlying framework. Every third party offering acessibility testing makes some use of these rules in their testing process.

Principle 1 Perceivable

Guideline 1.1 Text Alternatives

Pithy Guide Entry #1: Success Criterion 1.1.1 Non-text Content (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 1

Summary:  Images need alternative text, subject to certain exceptions.  The most relevant exception to readers: mere decorations or logos need no textual equivalent.

Cooresponding Functional Performance Criteria of Section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.1 Without Vision (specifying at least one non-visual operation mode) and Standard 302.2 Limited Vision (specifying at least one limited vision operational mode)

Detection:  Missing or empty alt attributes can be detected by free accessibility checkers such as AChecker or WAVE. The drawback of the free checkers is that they only do one page at a time. Only manual review can determine whether alternative text is adequately descriptive because AI is not yet capable of consistently creating adequately descriptive text.

Additional Notes:  Textual equivalents need only contain necessary information.  What image details do you want a reader with normal visual acuity to see? 

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Images without alt attributes are effectively invisible to screen readers.  The screen reader user thus loses important information communicated by the image unless conformance is maintained.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.1.1, Conformance Demo 1.1.1

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Alternative Text

Normative W3C linktext of 1.1.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques) : Understanding 1.1.1, How to Meet 1.1.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Write meaningful text alternatives for images, Include alternative text for images, Include image and media alternatives in your design, Images Tutorial

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Image accessible name is descriptive, Image button has non-empty accessible name, Image has non-empty accessible name.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Image not in the accessibility tree is decorative.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: Element marked as decorative is not exposed.

Guideline 1.2 Time-Based Media

Pithy Guide Entry #2: Success Criterion 1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded) (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 2

Summary:  Audio-only tracks need a transcript unless the track itself is an alternative for text.  Video-only tracks either need audio description or textual description unless the track itself is an alternative for text.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.1 Without Vision (specifying at least one non-visual operation mode) and Standard 302.2 Limited Vision (specifying at least one limited vision operational mode), Standard 302.4 Without Hearing (specifying at least one non-hearing operation mode), Standard 302.5 With Limited Hearing (specifying at least one limited hearing operational mode).

Detection:  The audio or video file requires manual review to verify the presence of a transcript or audio description track.

Additional Notes:  WAVE cannot measure this Criterion because there is no HTML attribute, element or tag necessary to the presence of an audio descripton or caption track.  While an audio description or caption track can be represented in HTML5, they can exist without the HTML markup.

Use of speech recognition software (e.g., Windows Speech Recognition or Dragon Naturally Speaking) can reduce the time necessary to create a transcript if used simultaneously with audio-recording.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Deaf individuals lose all access to audio-only tracks and blind individuals lose all access to video-only tracks.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.2.1, Conformance Demo 1.2.1

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Captions, Transcripts, and Audio Descriptions

Normative W3C link:  text of 1.2.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques) Understanding 1.2.1, How to Meet 1.2.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Transcripts Tutorial.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Audio element content has text alternative, Video element visual-only content has accessible alternative

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: Audio element content has transcript, Audio element content is media alternative for text, Video element auditory content has captions, Video element visual-only content has audio track alternative, Video element visual-only content has transcript, Video element visual-only content is media alternative for text

Pithy Guide Entry #3: Success Criterion 1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded) (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 3

Summary:  A video needs captions unless the video itself is an alternative for text.

Cooresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.4 Without Hearing (specifying at least one non-hearing operation mode), Standard 302.5 With Limited Hearing (specifying at least one limited hearing operational mode).

Detection: The video track requires manual review to verify the presence of an accurate caption file.

Additional Notes:  WAVE cannot measure this Criterion because there is no HTML attribute, element or tag necessary to the presence of an audio descripton or caption track.  While an audio description or caption track can be represented in HTML5, they can exist without the HTML markup.

Google's auto-captioning for YouTube does not in and of itself meet this criterion.  It can, however, be useful.  If you uploaded your video to your YouTube account you can correct the auto-captions without downloading them and this saves a considerable amount of time over creating a caption file from scratch.  They also can be downloaded, corrected, and re-uploaded.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Deaf individuals lose access to any information that is present only in the audio and cannot be discerned from the visual elements.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance and Conformance Demos for 1.2.2, 1.2.3 and 1.2.5

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Captions, Transcripts, and Audio Descriptions, YouTube Help for Caption Editing

Normative W3C link:  Text of 1.2.2

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques) :  Understanding 1.2.2, How to Meet 1.2.2

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Create transcripts and captions for multimedia, Captions/Subtitles Tutorial

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Video element auditory content has accessible alternative

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #4: Success Criterion 1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded) (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 4

Summary:  Videos need either audio description or transcripts that describe the visual elements communicating information not otherwise present in the audio.  Audio description refers to describing the visual elements not present in the dialogue.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.1 Without Vision (specifying at least one non-visual operation mode) and Standard 302.2 Limited Vision (specifying at least one limited vision operational mode)

Detection: The video track requires manual review to verify the presence of an audio description track or transcript.

Additional Notes:  Commercially produced audio description tracks are available for some movies, as in this Frozen trailer. Audio description may be the most challenging task in web accessibility that doesn't involve live video. WAVE cannot measure this Criterion because there is no HTML attribute, element or tag necessary to the presence of an audio descripton or caption track.  While an audio description or caption track can be represented in HTML5, they can exist without the HTML markup.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Visual information not present in the audio and not described or presented in screen readable text will be completely lost to the blind or low vision user.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance and Conformance Demos for 1.2.2, 1.2.3 and 1.2.5

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Captions, Transcripts, and Audio Descriptions

Normative W3C linktext of 1.2.3

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques) :  Understanding 1.2.3, How to Meet 1.2.3

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Create transcripts and captions for multimedia.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : Video element visual content has accessible alternative.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: Video element visual content has audio description, Video element content is media alternative for text.

Pithy Guide Entry #5: Success Criterion 1.2.4 Captions (Live) (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 5

Summary: Live webcasts need to be captioned.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.4 Without Hearing (specifying at least one non-hearing operation mode), Standard 302.5 With Limited Hearing (specifying at least one limited hearing operational mode).

Detection: Live captions require live manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Audio information not present in captions will be completely lost to the deaf or low hearing user.

Pithy Guide Examples: No demos for live captioning.

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Real-time Captioning

Normative W3C link:  text of 1.2.4

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques) :  Understanding 1.2.4, How to Meet 1.2.4

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Direct Mapping (passing rule equals conforming to the Success Criterion for the situation tested): None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Direct Mapping (passing rule equals conforming to the Success Criterion for the situation tested): None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #6: Success Criterion 1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded) (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 6

Summary:  All videos must have audio description tracks available.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.1 Without Vision (specifying at least one non-visual operation mode) and Standard 302.2 Limited Vision (specifying at least one limited vision operational mode)

Detection: Videos require manual review to verify the presence of an audio description track or transcript.

Additional Notes:  Audio description cannot be performed in a "talking head" video in the same sense as it can for a movie.  The presenter does not pause often enough to allow audio description during pauses. This Success Criteria is written with movies in mind, where there are often long pauses between dialogue.  Nevertheless, it is possible to perform a limited amount of audio description in a presentation as shown in an example below. WAVE cannot measure this Criterion because there is no HTML attribute, element or tag necessary to the presence of an audio descripton or caption track.  While an audio description or caption track can be represented in HTML5, they can exist without the HTML markup.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Visual information not present in the audio and not described will be completely lost to the blind or low vision user.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance and Conformance Demos for 1.2.2, 1.2.3 and 1.2.5

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Captions, Transcripts, and Audio Descriptions

Normative W3C linkText of 1.2.5

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques) :  Understanding 1.2.5, How to Meet 1.2.5

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Description of Visual Information Tutorial

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Video element content is media alternative for text, Video element visual content has strict accessible alternative

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Guideline 1.3 Adaptable

Pithy Guide Entry #7: Success Criterion 1.3.1 Info and Relationships (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 7

Summary:  Information cannot be solely conveyed through visual cues such as font size, placement of input boxes, or comparable presentation forms.  It must also be made available to assistive technologies such as screen readers (in technical terms, made "programmatically determinable").

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.1 Without Vision (specifying at least one non-visual operation mode) and Standard 302.2 Limited Vision (specifying at least one limited vision operational mode)

Detection: Certain non-conformances regarding form or table elements can be detected by the free WAVE or AChecker accessibility checkers. Other Non-Conformances require manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Information presented exclusively through visual cues is unavailable to screen readers.  For example, if there is an input box but the box is unlabeled, the screen reader cannot determine what input is required.  Therefore (especially if there are multiple input boxes), the screen reader user may not know what input is required.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.3.1, Conformance Demo 1.3.1

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Semantic Structure, WebAIM Creating Accessible Tables

Normative W3C linktext of 1.3.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques) :  Understanding 1.3.1, How to Meet 1.3.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Use mark-up to convey meaning and structure, Page Structure Tutorial, Tables Tutorial

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules,Directly Mapped: Headers attribute specified on a cell refers to cells in the same table element

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: ARIA required context role, ARIA required owned elements, Table header cell has assigned cells

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: ARIA attribute is defined in WAI-ARIA, ARIA required ID references exist, ARIA state or property has valid value, Element with role attribute has required states and properties, Heading has non-empty accessible name, Role attribute has valid value

Pithy Guide Entry #8: Success Criterion 1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 8

Summary:  If there is one correct reading sequence, assistive technologies such as screen readers must be able to determine proper reading order (in technical terms, the reading order is "programmatically determinable").

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.1 Without Vision (specifying at least one non-visual operation mode) and Standard 302.2 Limited Vision (specifying at least one limited vision operational mode)

Detection:   Requires manual review of markup language elements that can affect reading order or use of a free screen reader such as NVDA.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  If a screen reader cannot discern the correct reading order, the result may be out of order to a screen reader user (e.g., using improper table markup to create columns).

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.3.2, Conformance Demo 1.3.2

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 1.3.2

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):  Understanding 1.3.2, How to Meet 1.3.2

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Reflect the reading order in the code order

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #9: Success Criterion 1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 9

Summary:  Instructions must be programmatically determinable by a screen reader and similar assistive technologies. Therefore they cannot solely rely on shape, size, etc.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.1 Without Vision (specifying at least one non-visual operation mode) and Standard 302.2 Limited Vision (specifying at least one limited vision operational mode)

Detection:   Requires manual review for relevant characteristics.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  If a screen reader cannot read all of the instructions, the screen reader user may not be able to read the instructions (e.g., if a graphical symbol alone is used to convey information).

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.3.3, Conformance Demo 1.3.3

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 1.3.3

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques)Understanding 1.3.3, How to Meet 1.3.3

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Content has alternative for visual reference

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #10: Success Criterion 1.3.4 Orientation (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 10

Summary:  If the user is prevented from changing orientation, the required orientation must be essential.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:   Manual detection is necessary because automated accessibility checkers have not been updated to reflect WCAG 2.2 even in cases where automated checking would be possible.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:   Some users with motor disabilities may use fixed devices whose orientation can conflict with an author imposed orientation. These users could find content shrunk or enlarged beyond readability. The same could also be true for certain users with vision impairments.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.3.4, Conformance Demo 1.3.4

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 1.3.4

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):  Understanding 1.3.4, How to Meet 1.3.4

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Orientation of the page is not restricted using CSS transforms

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #11: Success Criterion 1.3.5 Identify Input Purpose (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 11

Summary:  Programmatically determineable information for input fields must include purpose. Including the purpose can reduce the need for manual entry of data.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.7 With Limited Manipulation, Standard 302.8 With Limited Reach and Strength (each of the first two specifying at least one non-manual operation mode), Standard 302.9 With Limited Language, Cognitive, and Learning Abilities (requiring simplification of relevant features).

Detection:   Manual detection is necessary because no tested automated accessibility checker caught the error in the non-conformance demo.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:   For example, failing to use an auto-complete attribute when the attribute should be used may increase the amount of manual typing required to fill out a form.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.3.5, Conformance Demo 1.3.5

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 1.3.5

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques)Understanding 1.3.5, How to Meet 1.3.5

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Autocomplete attribute has valid value

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Guideline 1.4 Distinguishable

Pithy Guide Entry #12: Success Criterion 1.4.1 Use of Color (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 12

Summary:  Color cannot be the only means of presenting information.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.1 Without Vision (specifying at least one non-visual operation mode) and Standard 302.2 Limited Vision (specifying at least one limited vision operational mode), Standard 302.3 Without Perception of Color (specifying at least one operational mode that does not rely on color).

Detection:  Requires manual review of color use

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Screen readers cannot distinguish between different elements based on color alone. Any information presented exclusively through color is invisible to the screen reader user. It may be invisible to those suffer from color-blindness as well.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.4.1, Conformance Demo 1.4.1

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Contrast and Color Accessibility

Normative W3C linktext of 1.4.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):  Understanding 1.4.1, How to Meet 1.4.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Don’t use color alone to convey information.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #13: Success Criterion 1.4.2 Audio Control (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 13

Summary:  Any audio playing for more than three seconds must have a way of being paused or stopped.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.4 Without Hearing (specifying at least one non-hearing operation mode), Standard 302.5 With Limited Hearing (specifying at least one limited hearing operational mode).

Detection:  Requires manual review of any audio tracks

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Very annoyed users, especially if the ongoing audio interferes with the user's ability to comprehend the information.  Some pages play both an ad and a second video clip.  Few users can follow two completely different audio streams.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.4.2, Conformance Demo 1.4.2

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 1.4.2

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):  Understanding 1.4.2, How to Meet 1.4.2

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Provide controls for content that starts automatically

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Audio or video element avoids automatically playing audio

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: Audio or video element that plays automatically has a control mechanism, Audio or video element that plays automatically has no audio that lasts more than 3 seconds

Pithy Guide Entry #14: Success Criterion 1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum) (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 14

Summary:  Subject to certain exceptions (logos, large text, and mere decorations), text and images of text must have at least a 4.5 to 1 contrast ratio.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508:: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.2 Limited Vision (specifying at least one limited vision operational mode).

Detection:   Contrast ratio can be measured using various online analysis tools, including the WAVE Color Contrast Checker. Images of text must be validated manually by matching the foreground and background colors of the images as closely as possible to hex or RGB color codes and inputting those codes into a color analysis tool such as the one above.

Additional Notes:One extra note regarding the use of WAVE and other accessibility checkers for automated checking. When using the automated WAVE tool rather than manually entering the color values into the contrast checker, Demo 1.4.3 passed a check it should have failed.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Insufficiently contrasting information is invisible to low vision users.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.4.3, Conformance Demo 1.4.3

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Contrast and Color Accessibility

Normative W3C linkText of 1.4.3

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):  Understanding 1.4.3, How to Meet 1.4.3

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Provide sufficient contrast between foreground and background

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Text has minimum contrast

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #15: Success Criterion 1.4.4 Resize Text (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 15

Summary:  Subject to certain exceptions (e.g., images of text), text must be able to be re-sized without loss of content or functionality.  That is, the page design must not interfere with the re-sizing of text.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: 36 C.F.R. Pt. 1194, App. C, Standard 302.2 Limited Vision (specifying at least one limited vision operational mode).

Detection:   Review can be accomplished using a browser's zoom function.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Affected text may be unreadable for low vision users.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.4.4, Conformance Demo 1.4.4

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linkText of 1.4.4

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):  Understanding 1.4.4, How to Meet 1.4.4

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Write code that adapts to the user’s technology

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Meta viewport allows for zoom

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Zoomed text node is not clipped with CSS overflow

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #16: Success Criterion 1.4.5 Images of Text (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 16

Summary:  Subject to certain exceptions (customizable images, essential uses such as logos), images of text should not be used if text can achieve the same effect.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:  Manual review is required to determine whether images of text are the only means to achieve a particular visual presentation.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Images of text may be unreadable for low vision users.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.4.5, Conformance Demo 1.4.5

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linkText of 1.4.5

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):  Understanding 1.4.5, How to Meet 1.4.5

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Images of Text

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: HTML images contain no text

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #17: Success Criterion 1.4.10 Reflow (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 17

Summary:  Content should reflow to prevent the need for scrolling in two directions.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:  Review can be accomplished using a browser's zoom function.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Scrolling in two directions can be challenging or even impossible for readers with motor disabilities.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.4.10, Conformance Demo 1.4.10

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linkText of 1.4.10

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):  Understanding 1.4.10, How to Meet 1.4.10

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped Meta viewport allows for zoom

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #18: Success Criterion 1.4.11 Non-text Contrast (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 18

Summary:  Controls (e.g., buttons) and graphics necessary to comprehension should have a 3:1 contrast ratio with adjacent colors.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:  Contrast ratio of specific color values can be measured using various online analysis tools, including the WAVE Color Contrast Checker. However, color values of controls and graphics must be validated manually by matching the foreground and background colors of the images as closely as possible to hex or RGB color codes and inputting those codes into a color analysis tool such as the one above.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Insufficiently contrasting information is invisible to low vision users.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.4.11, Conformance Demo 1.4.11

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Contrast and Color Accessibility

Normative W3C linkText of 1.4.11

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques)Understanding 1.4.11, How to Meet 1.4.11

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #19: Success Criterion 1.4.12 Text Spacing (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 19

Summary:  Users should be able to make text spacing adjustments within certain specified limits without loss of content or functionality.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:  Detection requires manual review with either specialized settings in the CSS stylesheet set to the relevant values or a browser plug-in that allows you to toggle and/or set those values.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Text may become cut off or otherwise unreadable by the reader.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.4.12, Conformance Demo 1.4.12

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linkText of 1.4.12

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):  Understanding 1.4.12, How to Meet 1.4.12

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped, Important line height in style attributes is wide enough

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #20: Success Criterion 1.4.13 Content on Hover or Focus (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 20

Summary:  When hover or focus reveals content; content must be persistent, hoverable, and dismissable without loss of focus.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:  Detection requires manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Content may disappear before it can be fully read or the user may not be able to dismiss tip when needed

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 1.4.13, Conformance Demo 1.4.13

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linkText of 1.4.13

Informative W3C linksUnderstanding 1.4.13, How to Meet 1.4.13

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Principle 2 Operable

Guideline 2.1 Keyboard Accessible

Pithy Guide Entry #21: Success Criterion 2.1.1 Keyboard (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 21

Summary:  Subject to certain exceptions, all functions must be available through a keyboard (i.e., every function that would normally be performed using a mouse).

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:   Mouse event handlers not paired with keyboard event handlers can be detected by the free WAVE and other accessibility checkers. Other Non-Conformances require manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Some users have sufficient difficulty using a mouse to render mouse-only functions unusable for those users.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 2.1.1 Conformance Demo 2.1.1

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: Keyboard Accessibility

Normative W3C linkText of 2.1.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):  Understanding 2.1.1, How to Meet 2.1.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Ensure that all interactive elements are keyboard accessible

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #22: Success Criterion 2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 22

Summary:  The page must not require a mouse to escape any page element.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:   Requires manual review using the keyboard to verify the page can be navigated.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Users who cannot use a mouse may be unable to move past and/or out of a certain point on a page.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 2.1.2 Conformance Demo 2.1.2

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: Keyboard Accessibility

Normative W3C linktext of 2.1.2

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.1.2, How to Meet 2.1.2

W3C Tips & Tutorials:Ensure that all interactive elements are keyboard accessible

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #23: Success Criterion 2.1.4 Character Key Shortcuts (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 23

Summary:  Keyboard shortcuts can be turned off, remapped, or made inactive.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:   Requires manual review using the keyboard to verify the shortcut can be modified.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Users who rely on speech recognition may inadvertently trigger keyboard shortcuts.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 2.1.4 Conformance Demo 2.1.4

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 2.1.4

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.1.4, How to Meet 2.1.4

W3C Tips & Tutorials:None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: No keyboard shortcut uses only printable characters

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Guideline 2.2 Enough Time

Pithy Guide Entry #24: Success Criterion 2.2.1 Timing Adjustable (Level A)

Summary:  Subject to certain exceptions, users must be able to adjust any time limits.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:   The free WAVE and other accessibility checkers can detect an automatic refresh. Other timing issues require manual review of relevant time limits.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance: An unadjustable time limit can force unwanted changes in content or context.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 2.2.1 Conformance Demo 2.2.1

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C link: text of 2.2.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.2.1, How to Meet 2.2.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials:None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #25: Success Criterion 2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 25

Summary: For certain information that moves, scrolls, or updates, users must be able to pause, stop, or hide the information.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:  Requires manual review of relevant information.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Some users may find this information distracting and it may interfere with their ability to comprehend the other information on the page.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 2.2.2 Conformance Demo 2.2.2

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C:None at this time.

Normative W3C linkText of 2.2.2

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.2.2, How to Meet 2.2.2

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Carousels Tutorial

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Text content that changes automatically can be paused, stopped or hidden

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Guideline 2.3 Seizures and Physical Reactions

Pithy Guide Entry #26: Success Criterion 2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 26

Quoted Text of 2.3.1: "Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds."

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:   Requires manual review of flashing content.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Can cause seizures.

Pithy Guide Examples: No demos for safety reasons.

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Seizure and Vestibular Disorders

Normative W3C linkText of 2.3.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):Understanding 2.3.1, How to Meet 2.3.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Audio Content and Video Content

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Guideline 2.4 Navigable

Pithy Guide Entry #27: Success Criterion 2.4.1 Bypass Blocks (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 27

Summary: Users must be able to bypass content that repeats itself on multiple pages.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:  Requires manual review of repeated content blocks. A common way to address these is to add a "skip to content" link.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Blind or low vision users using screen reading software have more difficulty skipping over repeated content.  Without shortcuts to skip such content they may become very frustrated.

Pithy Guide Example: Non-Conformance Demo 2.4.1, Conformance Demo 2.4.1

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Skip Navigation Links

Normative W3C linkText of 2.4.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.4.1, How to Meet 2.4.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Audio Content and Video Content

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #28: Success Criterion 2.4.2 Page Titled (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 28

Summary: Page titles must be sufficiently descriptive.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Page titles need to be manually reviewed.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance: Blind or low vision users using screen reading software are more dependent on page titles to describe content than users with normal vision because blind or low vision users cannot skip over irrelevent content as easily as users with normal vision. Improperly titled pages interfere with the evaluation process.

Pithy Guide Example: Non-Conformance Demo 2.4.2 Conformance Demo 2.4.2

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Page Titles

Normative W3C linktext of 2.4.2

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.4.2, How to Meet 2.4.2

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Provide informative, unique page titles

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: HTML page has non-empty title, HTML page title is descriptive

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #29: Success Criterion 2.4.3 Focus Order (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 29

Summary: If navigation order affects meaning, the order of focusable objects must preserve proper meaning.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:   Review requires use of free screen reading software such as NVDA or manual review using a keyboard.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Screen readers follow focus order. A garbled focus order garbles meaning.

Pithy Guide Example: Non-Conformance Demo 2.4.3 Conformance Demo 2.4.3

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: Keyboard Accessibility

Normative W3C linktext of 2.4.3

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.4.3, How to Meet 2.4.3

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #30: Success Criterion 2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context) (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 30

Summary: A link or its context must be clear unless the link is ambiguous to everyone.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:   Context requires manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Blind or low vision users using screen reading software may not understand where an ambiguous link leads.

Pithy Guide Example: Non-Conformance Demo 2.4.4 Conformance Demo 2.4.4

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Link Text and Appearance

Normative W3C linktext of 2.4.4

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.4.4, How to Meet 2.4.4

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Make link text meaningful

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : Link has non-empty accessible name

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : Link in context is descriptive, Links with identical accessible names and same context serve equivalent purpose

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #31: Success Criterion 2.4.5 Multiple Ways (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 31

Summary: Subject to certain exceptions, there are multiple ways to locate any given web page within a web site.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:   Ensuring multiple paths to webpages requires manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  If there is only one way to access a web page, some users may find access difficult.

Pithy Guide Example: Non-Conformance Demo 2.4.5 Conformance Demo 2.4.5

Useful Links with only Moderate Jargon: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 2.4.5

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 245, How to Meet 2.4.5

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #32: Success Criterion 2.4.6 Headings and Labels (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 32

Summary: Headings and/or labels should be sufficiently clear.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection :   While the free WAVE, AChecker, and other accessibility checkers can detect improper heading markup language, headings and labels should be manually reviewed for clarity.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Bad labels or headings can obscure content.

Pithy Guide Example: Non-Conformance Demo 2.4.6 Conformance Demo 2.4.6

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Headings

Normative W3C linktext of 2.4.6

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.4.6, How to Meet 2.4.6

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Headings, Labels

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Heading is descriptive, Form field label is descriptive

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #33: Success Criterion 2.4.7 Focus Visible (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 33

Summary: The user must have a means of making the focus indicator visible.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Focus indicators must be manually reviewed with a keyboard.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Low vision users using a keyboard may have difficulty following the focus indicator if it is not visible

Pithy Guide Example: Non-Conformance Demo 2.4.7 Conformance Demo 2.4.7

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C : None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 2.4.7

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.4.7, How to Meet 2.4.7

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Ensure that interactive elements are easy to identify

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : Element in sequential focus order has visible focus

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #34: Success Criterion 2.4.11 Focus Not Obscured (Minimum) (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 34

Summary: Author-created content cannot completely obscure a component that has received focus. The component must be partially visible.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Focus indicators must be manually reviewed with a keyboard.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Low vision users using a keyboard may have difficulty following the focus indicator if it is obscured

Pithy Guide Example: Non-Conformance Demo 2.4.11 Conformance Demo 2.4.11

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 2.4.11

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.4.11, How to Meet 2.4.11

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Element in sequential focus order has visible focus

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Guideline 2.5 Input Modalities

Pithy Guide Entry #35: Success Criterion 2.5.1 Pointer Gestures (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 35

Summary: Path based gestures must have non-path based alternatives.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:  Requires manual review of gestures.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Users with limited motor control may have difficulty performing complicated gestures.

Pithy Guide Example: Non-Conformance Demo 2.5.1, Conformance Demo 2.5.1

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C : None at this time.

Normative W3C linkText of 2.5.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.5.1, How to Meet 2.5.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #36: Success Criterion 2.5.2 Pointer Cancellation (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 36

Summary: Pointer actions should be reversible (e.g., an accidental mouse click can be undone).

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:  Requires manual review of down events (e.g., a mouse click) and up events (e.g., release of the mouse button).

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Users with limited motor control may make accidental mouse clicks or key presses they have difficulty undoing.

Pithy Guide Example: Non-Conformance Demo 2.5.2, Conformance Demo 2.5.2

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C : None at this time.

Normative W3C linkText of 2.5.2

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.5.2, How to Meet 2.5.2

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #37: Success Criterion 2.5.3 Name in Label (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 37

Summary: In cases where the visible label cannot serve as the accessible name identifying the component to screen readers, it must not present a mismach with the accessible name.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection:  Requires manual review of labels and accessible names because there are many different ways of coding the accessible name.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Mismatches create uncertainty for screen reader users.

Pithy Guide Example: Non-Conformance Demo 2.5.3, Conformance Demo 2.5.3

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Decoding Label and Name for Accessibility

Normative W3C linkText of 2.5.3

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.5.3, How to Meet 2.5.3

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #38: Success Criterion 2.5.4 Motion Actuation (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 38

Summary:Any function triggered by a particular user or device motion (e.g., a user gesture) has an alternate means of activation that does not require that motion. Subject to certain exceptions, function can be disabled to prevent accidental activation.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Manual.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance: Users subject to limited movements or unintended movements may be unable to activate a function, or may activate the function when not intending to do so.

Pithy Guide Examples: Forthcoming.

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C link: text of 2.5.4

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.5.4, How to Meet 2.5.4

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped : Device motion based changes to the content can also be created from the user interface, Device motion based changes to the content can be disabled

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #39: Success Criterion 2.5.7 Dragging Movements (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 39

Summary:Subject to certain exceptions, any pointer action that is activated by dragging has an alternate means of activation that does not require dragging.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Manual.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance: Users subject to limited movements or unintended movements may be unable to activate the pointer action.

Pithy Guide Examples: Forthcoming.

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C link: text of 2.5.7

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.5.7, How to Meet 2.5.7

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #40: Success Criterion 2.5.8 Target Size (Minimum) (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 40

Summary: Subject to certain exceptions, pointer input targets (e.g., buttons) must be at least 24x24 pixels in size.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Manual.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance: Users subject to limited movements or unintended movements may be unable to click on very small buttons.

Pithy Guide Example: Forthcoming.

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C link: text of 2.5.8

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 2.5.8, How to Meet 2.5.8

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Principle 3 Understandable

Guideline 3.1 Readable

Pithy Guide Entry #41: Success Criterion 3.1.1 Language of Page (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 41

Summary: The language of a web page must be specified in the markup language (i.e., be programmatically determinable).

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: The free WAVE and other accessibility checkers can detect missing languages in markup language.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  No consequences for an English language page if user's screen reader is reading in English.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 3.1.1, Conformance Demo 3.1.1

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Document and Content Language

Normative W3C linktext of 3.1.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 3.1.1, How to Meet 3.1.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: HTML page has lang attribute, HTML page lang attribute has valid language tag

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: HTML page language subtag matches default language

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #42: Success Criterion 3.1.2 Language of Parts (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 42

Summary: With certain exceptions (e.g., technical terms), any change in the language of a web page must be specified in the markup language (i.e., be programmatically determinable).

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Language changes require manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Unidentified language changes can result in screen readers mispronouncing said phrases.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 3.1.2, Conformance Demo 3.1.2

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 3.1.2

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 3.1.2, How to Meet 3.1.2

W3C Tips & Tutorials: Identify page language and language changes

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: Element lang attribute has valid language tag

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: HTML element page language subtag matches default language

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Guideline 3.2 Predictable

Pithy Guide Entry #43: Success Criterion 3.2.1 On Focus (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 43

Summary: Focus does not automatically initiate a context change.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Context changes require manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Unexpected context changes can be confusing.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 3.2.1, Conformance Demo 3.2.1

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 3.2.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 3.2.1, How to Meet 3.2.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #44: Success Criterion 3.2.2 On Input (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 44

Summary: Inputs do not unexpectedly initiate a context change.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Context changes require manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Unexpected context changes can be confusing.

Pithy Guide Examples: Non-Conformance Demo 3.2.2, Conformance Demo 3.2.2

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Creating Accessible Forms

Normative W3C linktext of 3.2.2

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 3.2.2, How to Meet 3.2.2

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #45: Success Criterion 3.2.3 Consistent Navigation (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 45

Summary: Navigational aids should appear in the same relative order unless changed by the user.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Navigational aids require manual review.

Additional Notes: The menu at the top of the page conforms to this criterion because it always appears in the same relative order even though the specific choices available change.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Unexpected changes in navigational order can be confusing.

Pithy Guide Examples: Forthcoming.

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 3.2.3

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 3.2.3, How to Meet 3.2.3

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #46: Success Criterion 3.2.4 Consistent Identification (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 46

Text of 3.2.4: "Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently."

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Ensuring consistent identification requires manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Inconsistent identification can be confusing.

Pithy Guide Examples: [revision forthcoming] Non-Conformance Demo 3.2.4

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C linktext of 3.2.4

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 3.2.4, How to Meet 3.2.4

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #47: Success Criterion 3.2.6 Consistent Help (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 47

Summary: Help contact information or help suggestions should occur in the same relative order on each page that they occur.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Manual.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance: Inconsistent positioning of help information makes it more difficult for users with certain disabilities to find help.

Pithy Guide Examples: Forthcoming.

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C link: text of 3.2.6

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 3.2.6, How to Meet 3.2.6

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Guideline 3.3 Input Assistance

Pithy Guide Entry #48: Success Criterion 3.3.1 Error Identification (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 48

Text of 3.3.1: "If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text."

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Error identification requires manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  If incorrect user inputs do not result in error messages, screen reader users may not realize input errors (as opposed to problems with the form) have occurred.

Pithy Guide Examples: [revision forthcoming] Non-Conformance Demo 3.3.1

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Creating Accessible Forms

Normative W3C linktext of 3.3.1

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 3.3.1, How to Meet 3.3.1

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #49: Success Criterion 3.3.2 Labels or Instructions (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 49

Text of 3.3.2: "Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input."

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Labels and instructions require manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Incorrect labels or instructions may result in neccessary form inputs not being correctly identified.

Pithy Guide Examples: [revision forthcoming] Non-Conformance Demo 3.3.2

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: WebAIM Creating Accessible Forms

Normative W3C linktext of 3.3.2

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):How to Meet 3.3.2, Understanding 3.3.2

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #50: Success Criterion 3.3.3 Error Suggestion (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 50

Summary: Corrections are offered unless contrary to security or purpose (e.g., a test).

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Corrections require manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  If no suggestions are offered for error correction, additional errors may be more likely than in the absence of suggestions.

Pithy Guide Examples: [revision forthcoming] Non-Conformance Demo 3.3.3

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C:

Normative W3C linktext of 3.3.3

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):How to Meet 3.3.3, Understanding 3.3.3

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #51: Success Criterion 3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data) (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 51

Summary: Legal, financial or stored data needs to be reversable, checkable, or confirmable.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: These forms require manual review.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Users with disabilities may find it more challeging to avoid mistakes.

Pithy Guide Examples: Forthcoming.

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C:

Normative W3C linktext of 3.3.4

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):How to Meet 3.3.4, Understanding 3.3.4

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #52: Success Criterion 3.3.7 Redundant Entry (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 52

Summary: Subject to certain exceptions, information that the user is required to reenter is either auto-populated or available for the user to accept.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Manual.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance: For users with certain disabilities, repeating physical motions or requiring cognitive recall of previously entered information can because the user to enter the information incorrectly or fail to reenter the information at all.

Pithy Guide Examples: Forthcoming.

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C link: text of 3.3.7

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 3.3.7, How to Meet 3.3.7

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #53: Success Criterion 3.3.8 Accessible Authentication (Minimum) (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 53

Summary: Subject to certain exceptions, authentication does not require a cognitive test.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Manual.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance: For users with certain disabilities, requiring a cognitive test for authentication may make it very difficult or impossible for the users to authenticate themselves.

Pithy Guide Example: Forthcoming.

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: None at this time.

Normative W3C link: text of 3.3.8

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):Understanding 3.3.8, How to Meet 3.3.8

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Principle 4 Robust

Guideline 4.1 Compatible

Success Criterion 4.1.1 Parsing (Level A)

Parsing is obsolete and has been removed from WCAG 2.2.

Pithy Guide Entry #54: Success Criterion 4.1.2 Name, Role, Value (Level A)

Back to navigational menu entry 54

Summary: User agents can fully interact with properly structured user interface components.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: While the W3C Validator can do some automated review, manual review is also necessary.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance:  Using non-conforming custom controls can degrade the user experience.

Pithy Guide Examples:

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C:

Normative W3C link: text of 4.1.2

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques):Understanding 4.1.2, How to Meet 4.1.2

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.

Pithy Guide Entry #55: Success Criterion 4.1.3 Status Messages (Level AA)

Back to navigational menu entry 55

Summary: Screen reader users and users of other assistive technologies must be able to receive status messages without placing focus on those messages.

Corresponding Functional Performance Criteria of section 508: None at this time.

Detection: Manual.

Additional Notes: None at this time.

Consequence of Non-Conformance: Users with certain disabilities may be unable to receive status messages.

Pithy Guide Examples: Forthcoming.

Non-W3C Links with Less Jargon than W3C: Carousels Tutorial

Normative W3C link: text of 4.1.3

Informative W3C links (explanations and techniques): Understanding 4.1.3, How to Meet 4.1.3

W3C Tips & Tutorials: None at this time.

W3C Approved Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Proposed Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Directly Mapped: None at this time.

W3C Accessibility Conformance Testing Rules, Overlapping: None at this time.